Global Positiong System (GPS)
USGS Center of Excellence for Geographic Information Science (CEGIS)
The National Center for Geographic Information and Analysis (NCGIA)
The Science of Geospatial Information

To capture, create, store, manage, query, display, and analyze picabytes of accurate, reliable, timely and relevant geospatial data, a multidisciplinary science that combines the science of computer, information, physical and social sciences with cartography, remote sensing, topology, surveying, geodesy, photogrammetry, Global Positioning System, database management system, and Geographic Information System was created. This science was called geospatial information science. To learn more about GIScience, read "What Is Geographic Information Science?" by Dr. Michael F. Goodchild.

What is Geographic Information Science?
To the right of this page there is a link to a book called A RESEARCH AGENDA FOR GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SCIENCE AT THE UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL SURVEY. In this book, which is free to download, GIScience is defined as follows:
Definition of Geographic Information Science

The individual who coined the term GIScience defined it as “a multidisciplinary research enterprise that addresses the nature of geographic information and the application of geospatial technologies to basic scientific questions” (Goodchild, 1992).

CEGIS [USGS Center of Excellence for Geographic Information Science] staff recently identified the reach of GIScience as including “the traditional mapping disciplines of surveying, aerial photographic interpretation, photogrammetry, remote sensing, and cartography. It also encompasses a broader scope of issues related to the modeling and representation of geographic phenomena, data, and processes; human cognition of geographic information; the analysis, depiction, and use of uncertainty information; spatial analysis and modeling, including geographic information systems (GIS); scale sensitivities; geographic ontologies; visualization; and other similar topics” (CEGIS, 2006). GIScience relies on expertise from many allied fields and has intimate ties to geospatial technology and applications.