The Food Safety Management System Geographic Information System Software

The Food Safety Management Systems


So far we have covered biological, chemical, and physical contaminants, and how they can cause foodborne illnesses along the path of food flow in any foodservice operation from receiving, storing, preparing, thawing, cooking to holding, cooling, reheating and serving. We also covered foodborne illness risk factors such as purchasing food from unsafe sources, not cooking and holding food correctly, poor personal hygiene and using contaminated equipment and utensils. In addition, we explained the supply chain and how food reaches foodservice establishments from growers, shippers, packers, manufacturers, distributors (trucking fleets and warehouses), and continues through the the food flow path. Also federal, state, and local governmental agencies that regulate all aspects of the supply chain. and the flow of food were explained. Here in this section we are going to apply these information as the foundation on which to build food safety management systems.

1. Overview of Food Safety Management Systems

- A food safety management system is a group of policies, procedures, measures and practices designed to prevent foodborne illness by actively controlling risks and hazards throughout the flow of food in an establishment. Examples of programs an operation needs to have are:
- Personal hygiene and food safety training programs
- Supplier selection and specification program
- Quality control and assurance programs
- Cleaning and sanitizing program
- Standard operating procedures (SOP)
- Facility design and equipment maintenance program
- Pest-control program

2. Active Managerial Control
(controlling foodborne illness risk factors)

- Active, not reactive, managerial control means it is the responsibility of the manager to actively control risk factors and hazards by purchasing food from a safe source, making sure food is cooked and held correctly, staff are practicing good personal hygiene and using uncontaminated equipment.
- Managers must anticipate risks and hazards and plan for them.
- Establish a solid training program.
- Prevent food from becoming unsafe in all points in the flow of food
- Monitor the progress of established policies and procedures and determine if they control the risk factors.
- Revise the policies if they are controlling risks and hazards.
- Take necessary corrective actions when necessary.
- Managers must acquire knowledge of how to keep food safe.

3. Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
(pronounced HASS-ip)

-Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point is a food safety management system based on idenfying significant biological, chemical, or physical hazards at specific points along the flow of a food product in order to prevent, eliminate or reduce them to a safe level.
- A good HACCP system must be written, specific to each facility's menu, customers, equipment, processes, and operation.
A HACCP plan is based on seven principles:
1. Conduct a Hazard Analysis is to determine likely occurrence of biological, chemical and physical hazards in the flow of food. For example bacteria is a likely hazard when food item is chicken.
2. Determine Critical Control Points (CCP) is to find the points in the process where hazards we identified in the first step can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to a safe level. For example cooking would be the critical control point during which bacteria's growth can be prevented, eliminated, and reduced to a safe level.
3. Establish Critical Limits for each CCP is to establish minimum and maximum limits that, when are met, prevent, eliminate or reduce hazards to a safe level. The CCP for chicken is cooking chicken at internal temperature of 165° F for 15 seconds.
4. Establish Monitoring Procedures After determining the critical limits, we must find out the best way to check it and make sure the limits are met. Also determine who will monitor them and how often. In the case of chicken, thermometers are used to check the temperature and make sure it reaches 165° F for 15 seconds during cooking.
5. Identify Corrective Actions
is to identify what steps must be taken when a critical limit is not me.
6. Verify that the System Works by determining if the plan prevents, reduces, or eliminates identified hazards. .
7. Establish Procedures for Record Keeping and Documentation is to keep record of HACCP creation, monitoring activities, corrective actions taken, validating equipment such as checking for good working conditions and records of working with suppliers.